Git feels like magic. Truly amazing tool. Best place to use is a UNIX-like system. You can also use Git Bash if you are using windows.
After installing git it needs to be configured. Something like this:
git config --global user.name "Arsh Jethi" git config --global user.email "[email protected]" git config --global --list
Next, it is always nice to setup ssh for ease of use later. For that first we need to generate a set of asymmetric encryption keys:
ssh-keygen -t rsa
This generates encryption keys of type that use an algorithm called rsa.
Now we can conveniently copy the public key and put it in the Settings>SSH section of our remote repository (likely Github or Gitlab).
Initialize git in your project directory.
Add files to staging area. The dot add's all changed/added files. You can also stage individual files by naming them.
You can create a file named .gitignore and list files in it that you don't want git to track.
git add .
Commit what you added to staging area.
git commit -m 'message'
Now, you can check status of your project directory.
Whatever we did so far was done on the local system. To sync this project with a remote repository we must create a new repository in our remote host and then link this project with that. The SSH keys setup before authenticates us. By default git creates branch named 'master'. While Github creates a branch named 'main'. To change the master branch to main we use the next command.
git branch -M main git remote add origin [email protected]:jethi/repo-name.git git push -u origin main
Origin is a standard alias for the repository used when talking to remote repo. The git push above has '-u' flag, which means set-upstream. It is necessary to add this flag for the first time to link to the remote repository. This enable argument-less use of several commands like git-pull. I highly recommend reading the documentation.
Now, you can simply send the changes done in the recent commit to the remote repo by a simple.
You can also fetch changes done in the repo by a fellow collaborator.
Cloning a remote repo. You can clone a open-source remote repository on you system easily and even fetch changes done to the repo.
git clone repository-url
The repo cloned above would already be linked to upstream. But you can't push changes in it without appropiate permissions. You can always make a pull request though.
If you added changes to staging area from mistake, you can unstage them like this:
git reset HEAD file-name
Reset last commits (The number 1 is for the last commit can be changed for multiple previous commits):
The --soft flag doesn't discard those commits, instead brings them to working area.
Note: If the commit that is reset was already pushed to remote you must force push the next commit using --force
git reset --soft HEAD~1
We can also discard changes to a file done in a recent commit.
git checkout -- file-name
Delete a file being tracked.
git rm file-name
Rename a file being tracked.
git mv initial-name new-name
You can check your previous commits and revert to any of them. This can also be done for a single file. How cool is that ?
'git log' helps us do that:
git help log
Some ways to see previous commits:
git log git log --abbrev-commit git log --oneline --graph --decorate git log hash-from hash-to git log --since="1 day ago"
Basic stuff. I recommend learning more from the documentation.
How to create a branch ? First let's list all branches.
git branch git branch -a
The '-a' flag lists all branches local + remote. 'master' is the default branch.
Creating a new branch:
git branch name-of-new-branch
To switch to another branch we use the term 'checkout':
git checkout other-branch
We can also create and switch to a branch in one command:
git checkout -b new-branch-name
Rename a branch:
git branch -m old-name new-name
Deleting a branch:
Note: A branch you are currently on cannot be deleted.
git branch -d name-of-branch
Note: The branch name supplied below gets merged into the branch you are currently checked-in on.
git merge branch-name
That's it for now. Make sure you read more about branches, merging, merging vs rebasing and diff. Keep learning !!!